>> Gather and process information from secondary sources to outline and compare some of the structures used by animals other than humans to produce sound

Gather and process information from secondary sources to outline and compare some of the structures used by animals other than humans tproduce sound.

Many different animals use a variety of ways with the help of their structures to produce sound different to how humans produce sound. Whether the sound is to escape a predator, locate each other from different places and perhaps to attract mates . Both animals and humans depend on sound to communicate and survive

Humans use their breathing organs along with different structures in the mouth to produce sound. we use these sound for communication between each other, the image below shows what part of the mouth aids in the production of sound.


Whales use sonar sounds to help them under the the ocean to spot out food and perhaps to find each other when they are lost , the sonar they use are similar to how the army submarines use their sonar. The noises may consist of whales moaning, roars and high pitched squeeling this may last from 5 minutes more, .The picture below shows how a whale finds it food through the use of sonar waves under the water , it is Reflect against the fish and it determines if there is something in the way depending if the sonar comes back.


The Cicada will use the tymbal wing like membrane that when it is moved at a fast speed the muscle contracts and will produce a buckle sound. with each buckle it causes a chain reaction that us humans hear as clicking noises, this noise is then amplified using the Tymbal plate. located in the cicada's body . the diagram below shows the anatomy of the apche cicada and how the tymbal membrane works and it results to buckling noises.

This diagram shows how the loud the cicada can reach in decibels and also how the tymbal membrane works within the cicada's body to create the sound to communicate with each other

Bats soley depend on using ultrasonic waves and echolocation, they use this to navigate whilst flying around and also to find their food, that habitat of the bats are dark areas and caves which means that they will need to find a way to find their way around , with this being said they will use ultrasonic waves that have very high frequencies that bounce of the walls and anything in the way , when it comes back to the bats ears i creates something like a map placing everything in the bats brain.


The table below indicates the different frequencies of a variety of organisms can hear differnt pitches and the ranges of hearing for that type of animal

Frequency Range of Hearing for Humans and Selected Animals
  animal                           frequency (hertz)
                                    low       high
  Humans                             20      20,000
  Cats                              100      32,000
  Dogs                               40      46,000
  Horses                             31      40,000
  Elephants                          16      12,000
  Cattle                             16      40,000
  Bats                            1,000     150,000
  Grasshoppers and locusts          100      50,000
  Rodents                         1,000     100,000
  Whales and dolphins                70     150,000
  Seals and sea lions               200      55,000
Reference: [[http://www.britannica.com/bcom/eb/article/single_table_inline/0,5716,675,00.html|Encyc. Britannica]].